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学习指导 Unit 6 Good manners

2008年10月13日 10:35:39 来源:教师Office 访问量:574
  一? 词汇过关
  1. interrupt
  【用法】 用作及物动词,意为“打断;中断”?例如:
  Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm.市内交通被暴风雪所阻断?
  Rain interrupted our baseball game.下雨中断了我们的捧球比赛?
  It is rude to interrupt other’s speech.打断别人的话是不礼貌的?
  interrupt常构成搭配interrupt sb. with sth(用某事打断/干扰某人)?例如:
  She interrupted my speech with a question.她问了一个问题,打断了我的演讲?
  2. introduce
  【用法】 用作及物动词,意为“介绍”,常构成搭配introduce sb. to sb.?例如:
  He introduced his friend to me.他把他的朋友介绍给我?
  Let me introduce myself; my name is Simpson. 让我作自我介绍吧,我名叫辛普森?
  introduce还可表示“引进;传入”,常用于introduce sth. into ... 结构中,into后面接地点作介词宾语?例如:
  His works began to be introduced into China forty years ago.他的作品是40年前介绍给中国读者的?
  Tobacco was introduced into Europe from America? 烟草是从美洲传入欧洲的?
  introduce还有“使……开始;作为……的开头”的意思?例如:
  He introduced his speech by telling a joke.他先讲了一个笑话作为演讲的开始?
  3. forgive
  【用法】 用作及物动词,后接宾语,表示“原谅;宽恕”,多用于forgive sb. for sth.结构中, 表示“为某事而原谅某人”?例如:
  Please forgive me—I didn’t mean to be rude.请原谅,我不是有意无礼的?
  She forgave her brother for breaking her doll.她原谅了她弟弟把她的洋娃娃弄坏了?
  forgive还可接双宾语,即构成forgive sb. sth.结构?例如:
  We forgave him his mistakes.我们原谅了他的错误?
  【搭配】 forgive and forget既往不咎;过去的事就算了
  【辨析】 forgive, excuse, pardon
  forgive是原谅他人对自己的冒犯且丝毫不怀有怨恨;excuse原谅小的过失,指的是容许错误或过失而不惩罚或弥补;pardon指宽恕严重的过失,侧重于免除因犯罪而应负的责任或惩罚的意思?例如:
  Excuse me for coming so late.请原谅我来晚了?
  We may forgive their mistakes. 我们会原谅他们的过失?
  God may pardon you, but I never can.上帝可能饶恕你,但我不能?
  4. manner
  【用法】 用作可数名词,意思是“方法;方式”,通常用单数形式?例如:
  Why are you talking in such a strange manner?你为什么用这种奇怪的方式谈话?
  I love duck cooked in Chinese manner.我喜欢吃中国烹法的鸭肉?
  用作可数名词,意思是“举止;态度”,常用单数形式?例如:
  I don’t like his manner. It’s too rude.我不喜欢他的举止,太粗鲁了?
  其复数形式,意思是“礼貌;规矩”?例如:
  It’s bad manners to talk with a full mouth.含着满嘴食物说话是不礼貌的?
  You should have good manners all the time.你任何时候都应该有礼貌?
  【搭配】 all manner of各种各样in a manner of speaking可谓;可以说not by any manner of means一点也不;决不
  5. toast
  【用法】 用作名词,表示“干杯”,常用于结构propose a toast to,表示“提议为……干杯”?例如:
  Let’s drink a toast to our friendship.为我们的友谊干杯?
  I propose a toast to the health of our father. 我提议为父亲的健康干杯?
  用作不可数名词,表示“烤面包;吐司面包”?例如:
  He always has two pieces of toast for breakfast.他总是吃两片烤面包当早餐?
  用作及物动词,表示“烤;烘”?例如:
  We toasted slices of bread for tea.我们烤面包当茶点?
  toast作动词,还可表示“祝酒;为……干杯”?例如:
  We toasted the bride and bridegroom.我们向新娘新郎祝酒?
  6. custom
  【用法】 用作名词,可指一个社会的“风俗?习俗”,也可以指个人的“习惯,”都是因为长期延续而固定下来的?例如:
  They broke some of the old customs.他们打破了一切旧习俗?
  It is his custom to take a cold bath every morning.他每天早晨总要洗冷水澡?
  【辨析】 habit 只用于表示个人习惯,强调习惯成自然,常常是不自然的,有时还含有不易破除的意味?而custom则多指一个国家?民族的共同习惯?风俗;manners既可指habit也可指custom?例如:
  He has formed the bad habit of smoking after meals.他养成了饭后抽烟的坏习惯?
  It is a good habit to eat slowly.细嚼慢咽是个好习惯?
  
  二? 短语突破
  1. for the first time 第一次
  On that day the old scientist took us to the physics lab for the first time.那一天,这位老科学家第一次带我们去了物理实验室?
  Two students met for the first time at the beginning of the term.两位学生在新学期的开始第一次见面了?
  【拓展】 all the time始终;一直from time to time有时;偶尔;时常in no time 立刻;赶快;马上keep time(钟表)走得准many a time 常常;多次on time准时;按时in time及时at a time每次;一次at no time决不 at one time同时;曾经at the same time同时;然而 at times有时
  2. start with以……作为开始
  He advised me to start with something easy.他建议我从容易的事开始?
  A thousand-li journey starts with the first step. 千里之行,始于足下?
  His illness started with a slight cough. 他的病开始于轻微的咳嗽?
  【辨析】 to start with 意为“起初;首先”,在句中作状语?例如:
  To start with, we have the correct leadership of the Party. 首先,我们有党的正确领导?
  Our group had five members to start with. 我们小组开始时只有五名成员?
  3. mix ... with ... 把……同……混合
  We can’t mix oil with water.我们不能把油和水混合在一起?
  We can sometimes mix business with pleasure. 我们有时候把工作和娱乐结合在一起?
  4. leave out 省去;遗漏;不考虑
  You can leave out their plan.你们可以不考虑他们的计划?
  You shouldn’t leave out this important detail in the trial. 在审判中,你不该漏掉这个重要细节?
  5. stare at凝视;盯着看
  It is impolite to stare at other people.盯着别人看是不礼貌的?
  Don’t stare at foreigners. It’s impolite.不要盯着外国人看,这样不礼貌?
  6. make jokes about 以……为笑柄;就……说笑
  They make jokes about my old hat. 他们以我的旧帽子为笑柄?
  【拓展】 have a joke with sb. about sth. 跟某人就某事开玩笑play a joke on sb.开某人的玩笑
  He stopped to have a joke with me.他停下来跟我开玩笑?
  We played jokes on each other.我们互相开玩笑?
  
  三? 句式解析
  1. I guess it wasn’t really your fault, was it?我认为这不是你的过错,是吗?
  反意疑问句由二部分构成,即陈述句+反问句,在形式上通常遵循前肯定后否定或前否定后肯定,并且反问句的主语和谓语须与陈述句的主语谓语相一致的原则?但当主句为第一人称,谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine, guess等引导的宾语从句时,疑问部分通常与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句?因为I guess, I think之类只是起着缓和语气的作用,句子的主要意思是宾语从句?例如:
  I don’t think he is right, is he? 我认为他不正确,对吗?(此句的宾语从句的否定词not转移到主语谓语去了,所以应视从句为否定句?因而反意问句用肯定式?)
  We believe she can do it better, can’t she? 我们相信她会做得更好,不是吗?
  2. Having good manners means knowing, for example, how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.进餐时,懂礼节意味着你知道如何使用刀叉,何时去祝酒以及如何举止得体?
  having good manners为动词-ing形式,在句中做主语?动词-ing形式作主语,表示经常性?不具体的动作,谓语通常用单数形式?例如:
  Learning English is very important to me.学英语对我很重要?
  Seeing is believing.眼见为实?
  此外,句中的mean后可接动词不定式,也可接动词-ing形式作宾语,但意义不同,mean doing表示“意味着做什么”,主语一般是某一件事,mean to do表示“打算去做某事”,主语一般是人?试比较:
  I didn’t mean to do that. 我不是故意要做那件事的?
  Losing a bus in London means waiting for another hour. 在伦敦错过一班车就意味着再等一个小时?
  3. The knife and fork that are closest to your plate are a little bit bigger than the ones beside them.离你盘子最近的刀叉比在它们旁边的刀叉稍大一点?
  句中的a little bit在句中修饰形容词bigger,意为“稍微;一点点”等,a little bit相当于a bit,只是程度上稍有不同?a little和a bit都作“一点儿”解,在句中作程度状语,修饰形容词?副词或动词?例如:
  She is feeling a bit (a little) better than yesterday. 她感觉比昨天好一点儿?
  It seems hard for her to sleep a bit(a little) in the daytime. 对她来说,白天睡会儿觉似乎不容易?
  a little和a bit都可以作名词用,这时两者意义和用法相同?例如:
  I know a little (a bit) about Mary.我对玛丽了解一点儿?
  a little和a bit用作形容词作定语时,a little可直接修饰不可数名词,而a bit后面需要加of?例如:
  Don’t hurry?选 We still have a little (a bit of) time.别急!我们还有点时间?
  注意在否定句中两者意思恰恰相反?not a bit相当于not at all,意为“一点也不”;not a little相当于much,意为“很?非常?许多”?例如:
  I’m not a bit surprised at his action. 我对他的行为一点也不感到惊奇?
  I’m sorry to have given you not a little trouble.对不起,给你添了这么多麻烦?
  4. When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the glasses should not touch.为某人健康祝酒时,要举杯,但不要碰杯?
  Although good manners always make you look good, you do not need to worry about all these rules while having dinner with friends or family.尽管礼貌的举止总能给人好印象,也不必在与亲友进餐时拘泥礼节?
  这两句中划线部分是省略句?完整的句子分别是When you are drinking to someone’s health及while you are having dinner with friends or family. 在when, while, if, as if, though(或although), as, until, once, whether, unless, where等连词连接的状语从句中,常省略跟主句相同的主语和be动词?例如:
  When (I am) in trouble I always turn to her for help.我在困难时总是找她帮忙?
  Wood gives much smoke while (wood is) burning.木头燃烧时放出很多烟?
  She studies very hard though (she is) still rather weak.她尽管身体还相当虚弱,但学习却十分努力?
编辑:李风
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