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学习指导 Unit 8 Sports

2008年10月13日 10:38:32 来源:教师Office 访问量:511
  一? 词汇过关
  
  1. gold
  【用法】 用作名词,常可作定语,意为“金的;金制的”?例如:
  Carl Lewis won four gold medals. 卡尔·刘易斯夺得4块金牌?
  Yangyang carried off the first winter Olympic gold medal for China.阳阳为中国夺取了第一枚冬季奥运会的金牌?
  用作不可数名词,表示“黄金;金子”?例如:
  The watch chain is made of gold. 这表链是金的?
  【辨析】 gold表示“金的;金制的”,表示是真金的质地;golden 为“金的;金色的”,指金黄色的外表?golden还常用于引申意义,含有贵重?重要?幸运等意思?试比较:
  试比较: He has a gold watch. (gold watch 金表)
  He has a golden watch. (a golden watch 金色的表)
  再如: gold coin金币;gold bar 金条;gold mine 金矿;gold chain 金链条;golden hair 金发;golden sunlight 金色的阳光; golden age 黄金时代;golden years 金色的年华;golden saying金玉良言
  
  2. further
  【用法】 用作形容词,意为“更多的;较远的;更远的;另外的;添加的”?例如:
  to get further information得到更多的消息
  I have nothing further to say.我没有别的话要说了?
  There will be a further performance of the opera next week.这出戏下星期还要演出一场?
  用作副词,意为“更大程度上;更多地;此外;进一步;更远或再往前”?例如:
  He stated further that he would not cooperate with the committee.他进一步指出他不愿与委员会合作?
  He said that he could not find it and, further, that nobody would ever find it.他说他找不到它, 而且也没有人会找到它?
  They went only three miles further. 他们才前进了3英里?
  【辨析】 farther与further的区别:表示“较远”?“更远”时,两者可以通用?例如:
  We can’t go any farther (further) without a rest. 我们不休息无法向前走了?
  They went farther (further) into the forest?他们走向森林深处?
  further还表示“更多的”,“另外的”;“进一步”,“更深一层”;“而且,此外”等含义,而farther没有此义?例如:
  We need go further into the matter. 我们必须进一步调查此事?
  The Museum will be closed until further notice.该博物馆将关闭,开放时间将另行通知?
  
  3. compete
  【用法】 用作动词,意为“try to win; try to do better than others 比赛;竞争”?例如:
  Although there were only 4 horses competing, it was an exciting race. 虽然只有4匹马比赛,这场比赛仍很精彩?
  He is going to compete against / with his old friend in the second round.第二轮他将与老朋友竞争?
  【搭配】
  compete in (a game; a match) 参加(比赛;游戏)
  compete with / against sb.和某人竞争
  compete for (a prize; a medal; the first place) 角逐(奖品;奖章;第一名)
  【拓展】
  competitor n.竞赛者,比赛者
  competition n.比赛;竞争?作“比赛”解时是可数名词, 作“竞争”解时, 常用作不可数名词?例如:
  The number of the competitors is 40. 参加比赛的人数是40?
  It was a friendly competition. 这是一次友好的比赛?
  There is more competition than before. 现在的竞争比以前激烈多了?
  注意competition与 game, race, match,contest的区别:
  game意为“游戏,比赛,运动”,可指户内?户外?脑力?体力均可,指球赛时多用于美国英语?棋类?桥牌等比赛中多用game?另外games(复数) 一般指大型的国际体育运动会, 如 the Olympic Games (奥运会), the Asian Games(亚运会)?match“比赛?竞赛”,指球赛多用于英国英语?它一般指预先安排好的正式比赛,摔跤?拳击等比赛中多用match?race 通常指赛跑?赛马?赛车?赛船等运动?competition 意为“比赛, 竞争”,指通过个人的体力?智力?技能等竞赛而获取名次的各种比赛,也可指体力,也可指其它技能方面的比赛?contest表示各种智力和知识“竞赛”,在这方面可与competition互换?
  
  4. join
  【用法】 指加入某个党派,团体组织等,成为其成员之一,意为“参军?入团?入党”等?例如:
  When did your brother join the army? 你哥哥什么时候参军的?
  She joined the Young Pioneers. 她加入了少先队?
  当用join来表示和某人一道做某事,通常用join sb. in (doing) sth.,根据上下文,in (doing) sth. 也可以省去?例如:
  Will you join us in the discussion? 你参加我们的讨论吗?
  Will you join us in a walk? 你愿意跟我们一起去散步吗?
  The teacher joined them in the experiment. 老师跟他们一起做实验?
  【辨析】 join in多指参加小规模的活动如“球赛?游戏”等,常用于日常口语?attend为及物动词,是正式用语,常指参加会议?婚礼?葬礼?典礼,去上课?上学?听报告等?句子的主语只是去听,去看,自己不一定起积极作用?
 Come along, and join in the ball game. 快点,来参加球赛吧?
  Why didn’t you join in the talk last night? 昨晚你为什么没参加座谈?
  He’ll attend an important meeting tomorrow. 他明天要参加一个重要的会议?
  I attended his lecture. 我听了他的讲课?
  
  二? 短语突破
  
  1. take part in“参加”,指参加会议或群众性活动等,着重说明句子主语参加该项活动并在活动中发挥作用?例如:
  We’ll take part in social practice during the summer vacation.暑假期间我们将参加社会实践?
  May I take part in your game? 我可以参加你们的游戏吗?
  【注意】 take part in是惯用词组,part前一般不用冠词,但part前有形容词修饰时,要用不定冠词?例如:
  Lincoln took an active part in politics and was strongly against slavery.林肯积极参加政治活动,强烈反对奴隶制?
  2. prefer…to… 意为“喜欢……要胜过喜欢……”(在这一结构中,to为介词)
  He said he preferred the country life to the city life.他说与城市生活相比,他更喜欢农村生活?
  Even on holidays, he preferred doing something to doing nothing.即使在假日里,他也宁愿干点什么事,而不愿闲呆着?
  【注意】 prefer在构成其-ed及-ing形式时,要双写词尾字母r,即:preferred,preferring?
  prefer还可与 rather than连用,这时 prefer和 rather than后面一般接不定式,而不接动词-ing形式,rather than后面通常跟不带to的不定式?例如:
  She preferred to go with us rather than stay behind.她宁愿和我们一道去,而不愿意留下来?
  He preferred to write to her rather than telephone her.他宁愿写信给她,也不愿打电话给她?
  3. would rather 宁愿;宁可
  If you’d rather be alone, we’ll all leave here. 如果你宁愿独自呆着,那我们都离开这儿?
  I would rather stay at home and do some reading this evening. 今晚我宁愿呆在家中读点书?
  【拓展】 would rather与than连用,可构成另一个惯用句式,即:“would rather ...than ...”,意谓“宁可(愿)……(而)不要(愿)……”?“与其……不如……”?用以表达主语的意愿,强调经过选择后做其中一件事,而不愿做另一件事?例如:
  I would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema. 我宁可在家看电视也不愿去看电影?
  The children would rather walk there than take a bus. 孩子们宁愿步行去那里也不乘公共汽车?
  would rather后也可跟从句,表示主语宁愿让某人干某事,这时,从句谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用一般过去时的形式表示现在或将来要做的事;用过去完成时的形式表示过去要做的事?例如:
  I’d rather you met her at the airport tomorrow morning. 我但愿你明天早上能在机场见到她?
  I’d rather you hadn’t told him the news that day. 我真希望你那天没有把那消息告诉他?
  4. in preparation for为……作准备
  He sharpened his knife in preparation for carving the meat.他将刀磨快准备去割肉?
  in preparation for 的同义动词短语为make preparations for?例如:
  We made preparations for the trip.我们为旅行作了准备?
  
  三? 句式解析
  
  1. Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games.每四年,来自世界各地的运动员将参加奥林匹克运动会?
  every可与表示数量的词连用,表示时间或空间的间隔?其几个主要结构如下:
  (1) every +基数词+复数名词
  The American people elect a president every four years.美国人民每四年选举一任总统?
  Take the medicine every six hours. 每隔5小时吃一次药?
  (2) every +序数词+单数名词
  He comes to see his uncle every third week. 他每三个星期来看望他叔叔一次?
  (3) every + other +单数名词
  The doctor comes to see my mother every other day.医生每隔一天来看我妈妈一次?
  We have English lessons every other day; that is on Monday,Wednesday and Friday.我们每隔一天上英语课,即星期一,星期三和星期五上课?
  【注意】 every后可接 few,但不能接 a few,因 every一词已包含了a之意,另外every后也不能接some,several,many等词?every后接序数词时,则修饰单数可数名词?例如:
  Trees should be planted every few metres.树应间隔几米种一棵?
  They looked up and gave a smile to each other every few minutes.每隔几分钟他们就抬起头来相互笑笑?
  2. They were held in Greece—the country in which the games were born.它们(现代首届奥运会) 在奥运会的发源地希腊举行?
  句中的the country是Greece的同位语, 它后面的定语从句in which the games were born是一个介词加关系代词引导的定语从句?它修饰先行词the country, which代替the country, 在这个定语从句中in country作地点状语, 可以用关系副词where来代替它: They were held in Greece—the country where the games were born.
  也可以将这个句子中which前的介词in放在从句的动词后, 这时which可以用that代替, 也可以省略, 但介词在关系代词前时, 只能用which, 既不能省略, 又不能用that代替?例如:
  They were held in Greece—the country (that / which) the games were born in.
  3. After that more and more countries joined in the games.此后, 越来越多的国家参加了比赛?
  more and more用在名词前,表“越来越多”;用来修饰形容词?副词(双音节或多音节)时,表“越来越……”?例如:
  There are more and more books in the library. 图书馆里的书越来越多了?
  English is becoming more and more important.We must work hard at it.英语变得越来越重要了,我们必须努力学好它?
  I’m more and more interested in computer. 我对计算机越来越感兴趣?
  “形容词或副词的比较级+and +形容词或副词的比较级”表示程度的增加,意为“越来越……”?例如:
  It’s getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热?
  Beijing is becoming more and more beautiful. 北京变得越来越美?
  “the + 比较级 + 陈述句,the +比较级”也可表示“越……越……”?例如:
  The more friends she has, the better she is.她的朋友越多越好?
  The harder you work,the greater progress you’ll make.你越努力,你取得的进步就越大?
编辑:李风
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