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学习指导 U10 The world around us

2008年10月13日 10:41:58 来源:教师Office 访问量:417
  一? 词汇过关
  
  1. endanger
  【用法】 用作动词,意为“to expose to harm or danger危害?危及(某人/某事物);使遭到危险 (cause danger to sb. / sth.; put sb. / sth. in danger)”?例如:
  The polluted air in the city is badly endangering the health of the people.城市中被污染的空气严重危及人们的健康?
  Fire endangered the hotel’s guests, but no lives were lost.火灾危及旅馆里住的客人,但没有人丧生?
  其过去分词endangered可用作形容词,意为“受到危害的”?例如:
  He’s always argued that the whale is an endangered species.他总是争论说鲸是一种受到危害的物种?
  
  2. tour
  【用法】 用作名词,意为“a trip with visits to various places of interest for business, pleasure, or instruction. 旅游;(为了公务?娱乐或教育参观多处名胜的)一次旅行;漫游”?例如:
  We went on a tour of the city.我们游览了一下这座城市?
  The students talked about the coming tour to the nearby mountain village together.同学们在一起谈论他们即将去附近山村观光的事情?
  用作动词,意为“to travel from place to place, especially for pleasure观光;从一地旅行到另一地,尤指为了娱乐的旅行”?例如:
  They toured Europe last summer.去年夏天他们在欧洲观光?
  The play will tour the countryside in the autumn. 这出戏将于今秋在农村巡回演出?
  【辨析】 journey, traval, voyage, tour, trip
  journey着重指长距离的陆上旅行;travel通常是到远方长时间的旅行,没有直接到某地旅行的意思,而有到处游历的意味;voyage主要指乘船进行水上旅行,也可指空中旅行;tour 指以游览?视察?购物等为目的的旅行,常含有最后回到原出发点的意思;trip往往着重于指包括回程的短暂旅行?
  
  3. measure
  【用法】 用作名词,意为“unit, standard or system used in stating size, quantity, or degree; step, action计量单位;标准?制度;步骤,措施”?常见搭配有take measures(采取措施)?例如:
  A meter is a measure of length.米是长度单位?
  They took strong measures against dangerous drivers. 他们对危害公众安全的司机采取强硬措施?
  measure可用作动词,意为“to find the size, length, amount, degree, etc量;测量;计量等”?例如:
  I measured the coat against her and found it was too long. 我把外衣在她身上比了一下,发现衣服太长了?
  
  4. devote
  【用法】 用作及物动词,意为“to give or apply (one’s time, attention, or oneself) entirely to a particular activity, pursuit, cause, or person奉献;将(某人的时间?精力或自己)完全奉献给某项特别的活动?事业?目标或某个人”?例如:
  He devoted all his time to his job.他把他的全部时间都用在工作上了?
  After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening.他退休后将致力于园艺?
  Everybody knows that our director is very devoted to his wife.人人都知道我们的厂长对妻子十分忠诚?
  
  5. common
  【用法】 用作形容词,意为:
  1) 共同的;共通的;联合的;公共的
  Britain and America share a common language.英国和美国使用同一种语言?
  Parks in town are common property. 城里的公园是公共财产?
  2) 常见的;常有的
  Snow is common in cold countries. 在寒冷的国家雪是很常见的?
  3) 普通的;熟悉的
  He wasn’t a hero but just a common man.他不是一个英雄,而是一个普普通通的人?
  This sort of weather is quite common.这种天气非常普通?
  【搭配】 common ground共同点;common knowledge / sense 人所共知的事;常识
  【辨析】 common, general, ordinary, usual
  common侧重“普通”之意,表示“时时发生,人所共有”,其反义词为rare;general 侧重“普遍”之意,表示在大多数人或事物中流行并受到关注,其反义词为“specific”;ordinary 和common 基本同义, 侧重“平凡的,普通的”,表示“随时可以碰到,不值得惊奇”,其反义词为superior;usual 用来指事物,意为“通常的,惯常的”,含有“随集体风俗或个人习惯而常常发生”之意,其反义词为“unusual”?
  
  6. reduce
  【用法】 用作动词,意为“to bring down, as in extent, amount, or degree; diminish缩减,减轻,减少(如在范围?数量上或程度上减少);降低”?例如:
  They’ve reduced the prices in the shop, so it’s a good time to buy things. 商店已经降价,看来现在是买东西的好时候?
  reduce与to连用,可表示“减少至;强迫;迫使”?例如:
  The fire reduced the forest to a few trees. 大火把森林烧得仅剩下几颗树?
  She was reduced to begging. 她被迫乞讨?
  
  二? 短语突破
  
  1. in danger意为“在危险中;垂危”,常与be连用,强调主语处于某种危险之中?例如:
  The old man was knocked down by the motorbike. He was in danger.那位老人被摩托车撞倒了,处于危险之中?
  注意: in danger和dangerous的差别,试比较:
  The terrorist is in danger.这个恐怖分子有危险?(他自己处于危险中)
  The terrorist is dangerous.这个恐怖分子很危险? (给别人造成危险)
  又如: a dog in danger一只处于危险中的狗; a dangerous dog一只对人有危险的狗
  【拓展】 in danger of意为“有……的危险”;out of danger意为“脱离危险”,常与be连用?例如:
  Some birds are in danger of dying out.有些鸟类面临灭绝的危险?
  The doctor said that his life was out of danger.医生说他已经没有生命危险了?
  2. die out 灭绝;消失;过时;熄灭?例如:
  The habitat of the tigers is being destroyed and they has nearly died out.老虎的栖息地遭到破坏,它们几乎要灭绝了?
  The old traditions are dying out.旧的传统正在消失?
  It took a long time before the big fire died out.过了很长一段时间那场大火才渐渐熄灭?
  【拓展】 die away 表示“(尤指声音?风?光等的)减弱(以至察觉不到)”?“淡化”或“逐渐消失”;die down 表示“(物质特征和感情的)逐渐减弱”?“逐渐平息”或“降低”;die of 表示“因(患)……而死”,常指由于疾病?情感?饥寒等原因引起的死亡,即死于内因;die from 表示“因…而死”,一般指除了疾病?情感?饥寒等原因引起的死亡,即死于外因?die from尤指因环境?事故等造成的死亡?注意:当指于因某种疾病而死时,die of 和die from 可以互换使用?
  3. adapt to sth. / adapt oneself to sth. 适应(新环境等)?例如:
  When his family moved to Canada, the children adapted themselves to the changed circumstances very soon.他一家移居加拿大后,孩子们很快就适应了改变了的环境?
  When you are abroad, you must find ways to adapt yourself to the culture and customs there.你到国外后,要设法使自己适应那里的文化和风俗习惯?
  4. devote(oneself / sth.)to(sb. / sth.)致力于;把……奉献给;把……专用于?例如:
  Nurses devote themselves to the care of the sick. 护士们致力于病人的护理事业?
  He devoted all his time to his job. 他把全部时间都用在工作上了?
  This magazine is devoted to science.这个杂志专门刊载科技文章?
  5. pick up
  (从收音机里)收到,听到;接收;(用车辆中途)搭载某人/接某人上车;无意中买到;偶然找到/获得;非正规学到等等?例如:
  My radio can pick up Follow Me very clearly. 我的收音机能清晰地收听《跟我学》?
  You dropped the book on the floor, now you should pick it up. 你把书掉在地板上,现在你应该把它捡起来?
  Pick me up at the hotel this afternoon. 今天下午开车到旅馆来接我?
  Where did you pick up that lovely old vase? 你在哪儿买到的那只漂亮的花瓶?
  
  三? 句式解析
  
  1. We human beings could not survive without all the plants and animals around us.没有周围的动物和植物,我们人类就无法生存?
  介词短语without在这里表示假设条件,相当于if there were no plants or animals around us?有时虚拟条件不用从句而用介词短语来表示?例如:
  Without air, all living things would die. 如果没有空气,所有的生物都会死亡?
  But for her help, the police couldn’t have succeeded in solving the mystery in such a short time.如果没有她的帮助,警方不可能在这么短的时间内就破了这个疑案?
  2. They are all used to their environment; that is, they have learnt how to live successfully in their habitat.它们全都习惯了它们的生长环境,也就是说,它们已经学会了怎样成功地在它们的栖息地生活?
  that is意为“也就是”,“也就是说”,也可说that is to say,用于引起一个分句,对前面的内容作进一步的解释,相当于namely?例如:
  You’ve done well in the test, that is, you have passed it.你考得很好,也就是说,你已经通过了考试?
编辑:李风
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